We describe a novel mouse monoclonal antibody (PRA-72) that recognizes a nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation. The monoclonal antibody stained the nuclei of logarithmically growing cultured stromal cells. The nuclear staining disappeared when these cells entered G0 phase of the cell cycle. Western blot analysis revealed a nuclear protein which appeared as a doublet at 35-40 KD, which was undetectable in extracts from confluent cells. Immunocytological study of purified cell populations from various cell cycle phases revealed peripheral nuclear staining in all stages except mitosis, when the chromosomes were observed enveloped with the antigen. In co- cultures of quiescent stromal cells and proliferating hemopoietic precursors, only the latter showed nuclear staining by PRA-72 monoclonal antibody. Further indications for selective expression of the antigen by proliferating cells were found by an immunohistochemical study of various tissues including newborn mouse bone marrow and its surrounding connective tissue, mouse tongue epithelium, and human carcinoma of the colon. This antibody may, therefore, prove useful in the evaluation of human tumors.