Novel MALT1 Mutation Linked to Immunodeficiency, Immune Dysregulation, and an Abnormal T Cell Receptor Repertoire

Shirly Frizinsky, Erez Rechavi, Ortal Barel, Rose H. Najeeb, Shoshana Greenberger, Yu Nee Lee, Amos J. Simon, Atar Lev, Chi A. Ma, Guangping Sun, Sarah A. Blackstone, Joshua D. Milner, Raz Somech, Tali Stauber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Abstract: MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1) is an intracellular signaling protein that activates NFκB and is crucial for both the adaptive and innate immune responses. Only 6 patients with immune deficiencies secondary to inherited mutations in the MALT1 gene have been described. Purpose: To provide clinical and immunological insights from 2 patients diagnosed with MALT1 immunodeficiency syndrome due to a novel MALT1 mutation. Methods: Two cousins with suspected combined immunodeficiency underwent immunological and genetic work-up, including lymphocyte phenotyping, lymphocyte activation by mitogen stimulation, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of T cell receptor gamma chain (TRG) repertoire. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify the underlying genetic defect. Results: Clinical findings included recurrent infections, failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, dermatitis, and autoimmunity. Immune work-up revealed lymphocytosis, low to normal levels of immunoglobulins, absence of regulatory T cells, and low Th17 cells. A normal proliferative response was induced by phytohemagglutinin and IL-2 but was diminished with anti-CD3. TRG repertoire was diverse with a clonal expansion pattern. Genetic analysis identified a novel autosomal recessive homozygous c.1799T>A; p. I600N missense mutation in MALT1. MALT1 protein expression was markedly reduced, and in vitro IL-2 production and NFκB signaling pathway were significantly impaired. Conclusions: Two patients harboring a novel MALT1 mutation presented with signs of immune deficiency and dysregulation and were found to have an abnormal T cell receptor repertoire. These findings reinforce the link between MALT1 deficiency and combined immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis is crucial, and curative treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-413
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical Immunology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 15 May 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Autoimmunity
  • MALT1
  • NFκB
  • NGS
  • TCR repertoire
  • combined immunodeficiency (CID)
  • immune dysregulation
  • regulatory T cells


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