Nonrelativistic spatiotemporal quantum reference frames

Michael Suleymanov, Ismael L. Paiva, Eliahu Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Quantum reference frames have attracted renewed interest recently, as their exploration is relevant and instructive in many areas of quantum theory. Among the different types, position and time reference frames have captivated special attention. Here, we introduce and analyze a nonrelativistic framework in which each system contains an internal clock in addition to its external (spatial) degree of freedom and, hence, can be used as a spatiotemporal quantum reference frame. We present expressions for expectation values and variances of relevant observables in different perspectives, as well as relations between these quantities in different perspectives in scenarios with no interactions. In particular, we show that even in these simple scenarios the relative uncertainty between clocks affects the relative spatial spread of the systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number032205
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 American Physical Society.


We thank P. Höhn for providing useful comments on an early version of this paper. I.L.P. acknowledges support from the European Research Council Advanced Grant No. FLQuant. E.C. is supported by the Israeli Innovation Authority under Project No. 73795, by the Pazy Foundation, by the Israeli Ministry of Science and Technology, and by the Quantum Science and Technology Program of the Israeli Council of Higher Education.

FundersFunder number
Quantum Science and Technology Program of the Israeli Council of Higher Education
European Research Council
Ministry of science and technology, Israel
PAZY Foundation
Israel Innovation Authority73795


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