Background Recent studies regarding non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents have focused primarily on individual characteristics (e.g., depressive symptoms) and background factors (e.g., parental relationship), whereas less emphasis has been given to the role of school-related factors in NSSI. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to explore the relationships between teachers’ support, peer climate, and NSSI within the school context. Methods The sample consisted of 594 high school students nested within 27 regular classes (54.4% boys; mean age 14.96, SD = 1.33 years). The students were evaluated for NSSI behaviors, perception of teacher support, peer climate, relationships with mothers, and depressive symptoms using validated scales. Results The primary analysis used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), controlling for gender and age. The main findings indicated that teacher support was positively associated with NSSI at the classroom-level (OR = 6.15, 95% CI = 2.05–18.5) but negatively associated at the student-level (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49–0.89). There was a trend toward an association between positive peer climate and NSSI at the classroom-level (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.18–1.05), while negative peer climate was associated with NSSI at the student-level (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.00–1.87). Conclusions School-related factors are associated with NSSI behaviors among students. Teachers and educators should focus on both individual-level and classroom-level perceptions of school context. Students who feel supported by their teachers and who are exposed to a positive peer climate are less likely to engage in NSSI.
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© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS
- Adolescent psychiatry