Cardiovascular complications are leading causes of most fatalities. Coronary artery disease and surgical failures contribute to the death of the majority of patients. Advanced research in the field of medical devices like stents has efficiently resolved these problems. Clinically, drug-eluting stents have proven their efficacy and safety compared to bare metal stents, which have problems of in-stent restenosis. However, drug-loaded stents coated with polymers have shown adverse effects related to the stability and deterioration of the polymer coating over time. This results in late stent thrombosis and immunogenicity. These reasons laid the foundation for the development of non-polymeric drug-eluting stents. This review focuses on non-polymer drug-eluting stents loaded with different drugs like anti-inflammatory agents, anti-thrombotic, anti-platelet agents, immune suppressants and others. Surface modification techniques on stents like crystalline coating; microporous, macroporous, and nanoporous coatings; and chemically modified self-assembled monolayers are described in detail. There is also an update on clinically approved products and those under development.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2017, Controlled Release Society.
- Coronary artery disease
- In-stent restenosis
- Non-polymeric drug-eluting stents