## Abstract

We investigate two models of a quantum system under rapid measurement performed to detect whether the system is in a given state |ψd). In the first, the detection process is modeled via an imaginary potential 2iℏ|ψd)(ψd|/τ. In the second approach, repeated strong projective measurements are performed on the otherwise unitarily evolving system with a fixed high frequency 1/τ. We compare the statistics of the random time T of first successful detection for the two models, considering both its probability density function F(t) and the moments (Tm). We show, by a direct comparison of the two solutions, that both approaches yield the same results for F(t) (and so the moments) in the small-τ limit, also called the Zeno limit, as long as the initial state |ψin) is not parallel to the detection state, so that |(ψd|ψin)|<1. When this condition is violated, however, the low probability density to detect the state on timescales much larger than τ is precisely a factor of 4 smaller in the non-Hermitian model. We express the solution of the Zeno limit of both problems formally in terms of an electrostatic analogy. Our results are corroborated by numerical simulations.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 012218 |

Journal | Physical Review A |

Volume | 102 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jul 2020 |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:F.T. is grateful to Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, Germany) for support under Grants No. TH 2192/1-1 and No. TH 2192/2-1. Support from Israel Science Foundation through Grant No. 1898/17 is acknowledged.

Publisher Copyright:

© 2020 American Physical Society.