Non-edible fruit seeds: nutritional profile, clinical aspects, and enrichment in functional foods and feeds

Harsh Kumar, Rajni Dhalaria, Shivani Guleria, Ruchi Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Rachna Verma, Natália Cruz-Martins, Daljeet Singh Dhanjal, Chirag Chopra, Talwinder Kaur, Vijay Kumar, Shahida Anusha Siddiqui, Sivakumar Manickam, Richard Cimler, Kamil Kuca

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Nowadays, fruits are gaining high demand due to their promising advantages on human health. Astonishingly, their by-products, that is, seeds and peels, account for 10–35% of fruit weight and are usually thrown as waste after consumption or processing. But it is neglected that fruit seeds also have functional properties and nutritional value, and thus could be utilized for dietary and therapeutic purposes, ultimately reducing the waste burden on the environment. Owing to these benefits, researchers have started to assess the nutritional value of different fruits seeds, in addition to the chemical composition in various bioactive constituents, like carotenoids (lycopene), flavonoids, proteins (bioactive peptides), vitamins, etc., that have substantial health benefits and can be used in formulating different types of food products with noteworthy functional and nutraceutical potential. The current review aims to comprehend the known information of nutritional and phytochemical profiling of non-edible fruits seeds, viz. apple, apricot, avocado, cherry, date, jamun, litchi, longan, mango, and papaya. Additionally, clinical studies conducted on these selected non-edible fruit seed extracts, their safety issues and their enrichment in food products as well as animal feed has also been discussed. This review aims to highlight the potential applications of the non-edible fruit seeds in developing new food products and also provide a viable alternative to reduce the waste disposal issue faced by agro-based industries.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Early online date9 Oct 2023
StateE-pub ahead of print - 9 Oct 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Bioactive compounds
  • composition
  • food enrichment
  • fruit seeds
  • value-added products


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