A learning experience May lead to changes in behavior during the experience, and also to memory expressed at a later time. Are signals causing changes in behavior during the learning experience related to the formation and expression of memory? We examined this question, using learning that food is inedible in Aplysia. Treatment of an isolated buccal ganglia preparation with an NO donor elicited rejection-like motor programs. Rejection initiated by NO production is consistent with aspects of behavioral changes seen while animals learn, and with memory formation. Nonetheless, applying the NO donor during training had only minor effects on behavior during the training, and did not improve memory, indicating that the induction of rejection in the buccal ganglia is unlikely to be the means by which NO during training contributes to memory formation. Block of NO during memory retrieval prevented the expression of memory, as measured by a lack of savings in time to stop responding to food. Applying an NO donor to the cerebral ganglion while eliciting fictive feeding inhibited the expression of feeding activity, indicating that some NO effects on memory consolidation and on expression of memory May be via effects on the cerebral ganglion.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (ISF) Grant 1379/12. We thank Hillel Chiel for comments on a much earlier version of the manuscript and Menucha Machluf for help with a figure.
© 2018 Briskin-Luchinsky et al.