Humans have been fascinated by sleep for millennia. After almost a century of scientific interrogation, significant progress has been made in understanding the neuronal regulation and functions of sleep. The application of new methods in neuroscience that enable the analysis of genetically defined neuronal circuits with unprecedented specificity and precision has been paramount in this endeavor. In this review, we first discuss electrophysiological and behavioral features of sleep/wake states and the principal neuronal populations involved in their regulation. Next, we describe the main modulatory drives of sleep and wakefulness, including homeostatic, circadian, and motivational processes. Finally, we describe a revised integrative model for sleep/wake regulation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Jeremy C. Borniger, Suszie Tyree, and the referees for helpful comments on this manuscript. This work was supported by the Katharine McCormick Advanced postdoctoral fellowships (AE-R), the NIH grants: R01-MH087592, R01-MH102638, and R01-AG04767 (LdL), a Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (NARSAD) Grant (LdL), a Merck Grant (LdL) and a Johnson & Johnson Grant (LdL), Legacy Heritage Biomedical Program of the Israel Science Foundation (992/14, LA), Israel Science Foundation (690/15, LA) and the US Israel Binational Science Foundation (2011335, LA and LdL). The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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