Dyslexia is a neurobiological learning disability in the reading domain that has symptoms in early childhood and persists throughout life. Individuals with dyslexia experience difficulties in academia and cognitive and emotional challenges that can affect wellbeing. Early intervention is critical to minimize the long-term difficulties of these individuals. However, the behavioral and neural correlates which predict dyslexia are challenging to depict before reading is acquired. One of the precursors for language and reading acquisition is executive functions (EF). The present review aims to highlight the current atypicality found in individuals with dyslexia in the domain of EF using behavioral measures, brain mapping, functional connectivity, and diffusion tensor imaging along development. Individuals with dyslexia show EF abnormalities in both behavioral and neurobiological domains, starting in early childhood that persist into adulthood. EF impairment precedes reading disability, therefore adding an EF assessment to the neuropsychological testing is recommended for early intervention. EF training should also be considered for the most comprehensive outcomes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) grant (5R01HD086011, PI: TH-K) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant PP00P1_170506/1, PI: SI).
© Copyright © 2021 Farah, Ionta and Horowitz-Kraus.
- executive function