Naming difficulties in children with dyslexia: Application of the tip-of-the-tongue paradigm

Miriam Faust, Lilly Dimitrovsky, Tamar Shacht

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


The present study used the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experimental paradigm in a picture naming task to explore the source of the naming deficits of children with dyslexia. Compared with a control group of typically developing readers, the children with dyslexia showed fewer correct responses and spontaneous recalls, more don't know (DK) and TOT responses, and less accurate feeling of knowing (FOK) judgments. When they failed to retrieve a target word, the children with dyslexia did not differ from the control group in the partial semantic information they provided, but they gave less valid and more invalid partial phonological information. The children with dyslexia also benefited less from phonological cues. The phonologically related responses of the children with dyslexia elicited during the administration of the TOT procedure were related to their performance on a phonological awareness test. These findings suggest that the naming problems of children with dyslexia arise because of their difficulty in accessing the phonological word forms after the corresponding abstract lexical representation has been successfully accessed. The results are discussed in relation to the claim that two-stage models of naming can be profitably used in the early identification and treatment of reading disabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-215
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Learning Disabilities
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2003


Dive into the research topics of 'Naming difficulties in children with dyslexia: Application of the tip-of-the-tongue paradigm'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this