Mutagenesis of Phytophthora infestans for resistance against carboxylic acid amide and phenylamide fungicides

Avia Rubin, Dror Gotlieb, Ulrich Gisi, Yigal Cohen

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25 Scopus citations


The carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides mandipropamid, dimethomorph, iprovalicarb, and the phenylamide fungicide mefenoxam (MFX, the active enantiomer of metalaxyl) are anti-oomycete fungicides effective against downy mildews and late blight. Resistance against MFX was reported in nature in several oomycetes including Phytophthora infestans and Plasmopara viticola, whereas resistance against CAAs was reported in P. viticola but not in P. infestans. In this study the mutability of P. infestans for resistance against CAAs and MFX (as a control) was explored under laboratory conditions. UV light or chemical mutagens (e.g., ethyl methan sulfonate [EMS]) were applied to sporangia, and the emergence of mutants resistant to CAAs or MFX, or with altered mating type, was followed. Many mutants resistant to CAAs developed at generation 0 after mutagenesis, but all showed erratic, instable resistance in planta, diminishing after 1 to 8 asexual infection cycles, and failed to grow on CAA-amended medium. In contrast, 19 mutants resistant to MFX were obtained: 6 with UV irradiation (in isolates 28 or 96) and 13 with EMS (in isolates 408, 409, and 410). In three experiments, a shift in mating type, from A1 to A2, was detected. To elucidate whether or not resistance to CAAs is recessive and therefore might emerge only after sexual recombination, A1 and A2 mutants were crossed and the F1 and F2 progeny isolates were tested for resistance. Offspring isolates segregated for resistance to MFX, with resistant isolates maintaining stable resistance in vitro and in planta, whereas all progeny isolates failed to show stable resistance to CAAs in planta or in vitro. The data suggest that P. infestans could be artificially mutated for resistance against MFX, but not against CAAs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)675-683
Number of pages9
JournalPlant Disease
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2008


  • Cinnamic acid amides
  • Fungicide resistance
  • Mandelic acid amides
  • Mutation
  • Potato
  • Tomato
  • Valinamid carbamates


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