Multiple Symbiont Acquisition Strategies as an Adaptive Mechanism in the Coral Stylophora pistillata

Kristen A. Byler, Maya Carmi-Veal, Maoz Fine, Tamar L. Goulet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations

Abstract

In obligate symbioses, the host's survival relies on the successful acquisition and maintenance of symbionts. Symbionts can either be transferred from parent to offspring via direct inheritance (vertical transmission) or acquired anew each generation from the environment (horizontal transmission). With vertical symbiont transmission, progeny benefit by not having to search for their obligate symbionts, and, with symbiont inheritance, a mechanism exists for perpetuating advantageous symbionts. But, if the progeny encounter an environment that differs from that of their parent, they may be disadvantaged if the inherited symbionts prove suboptimal. Conversely, while in horizontal symbiont acquisition host survival hinges on an unpredictable symbiont source, an individual host may acquire genetically diverse symbionts well suited to any given environment. In horizontal acquisition, however, a potentially advantageous symbiont will not be transmitted to subsequent generations. Adaptation in obligate symbioses may require mechanisms for both novel symbiont acquisition and symbiont inheritance. Using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR, we identified the dinoflagellate symbionts (genus Symbiodinium) hosted by the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata throughout its ontogenesis and over depth. We present evidence that S. pistillata juvenile colonies may utilize both vertical and horizontal symbiont acquisition strategies. By releasing progeny with maternally derived symbionts, that are also capable of subsequent horizontal symbiont acquisition, coral colonies may acquire physiologically advantageous novel symbionts that are then perpetuated via vertical transmission to subsequent generations. With symbiont inheritance, natural selection can act upon the symbiotic variability, providing a mechanism for coral adaptation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere59596
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 26 Mar 2013

Funding

FundersFunder number
Directorate for Biological Sciences0747205

    Fingerprint

    Dive into the research topics of 'Multiple Symbiont Acquisition Strategies as an Adaptive Mechanism in the Coral Stylophora pistillata'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this