Mucoadhesive Carrier-Mediated Oral Co-delivery of Bcl2 Inhibitors Improves Gastric Cancer Treatment

Raj Kumar, Humayra Afrin, Himanshu N. Bhatt, Elfa Beaven, Anushareddy Gangavarap, Stephanie V. Esquivel, Md Ikhtiar Zahid, Md Nurunnabi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gastric cancer treatment is challenging due to the lack of early-stage diagnostic technology and targeted delivery systems. Currently, the available treatments for gastric cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiation. These strategies are either invasive or require systemic delivery, exerting toxicities within healthy tissues. By creation of a targeted delivery system to the stomach, gastric cancer can be treated in the early stages. Such an approach reduces the negative effects on the rest of the body by minimizing systemic absorbance and random localization. With this in mind, we developed a mucoadhesive vehicle composed of β-Glucan And Docosahexaenoic Acid (GADA) for controlled drug/gene delivery. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of codelivery Bcl2 inhibitors navitoclax (NAVI) and siRNA (Bcl2) via oral using GADA. The therapeutic efficacy of the GADA-mediated oral NAVI/siRNA was investigated in a gastric cancer mouse model. Higher Bcl2 inhibition efficacy was observed in Western blotting and TUNEL assay in mice treated with GADA/NAVI/siRNA compared to free NAVI, siRNA, and NAVI/siRNA. Histology (H&E) and immunohistochemistry (Ki67, TUNEL, and BCl2) analyses confirmed a significant reduction of the tumor region. Interaction between GADA and mucus resulted in retention for over 6 h and thereby sustained local payload release. The developed oral carrier GADA is an emerging vehicle that has promising potential in oral delivery of both small and large molecules, and their mucoadhesive property results in improved therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects compared to conventional treatment. This study opens a new window for the effective delivery of oral medicine for the treatment of gastric cancer and other gastrointestinal diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-317
Number of pages13
JournalACS applied materials & interfaces
Issue number1
StatePublished - 10 Jan 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.


  • gastric cancer
  • gastrointestinal tract
  • mucoadhesive nanocarrier
  • nanoparticles
  • stomach


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