Background: Breast cancer at a young age threatens the natural developmental tasks that characterize this phase in life including parenthood. The dilemma of whether to give birth arises due to the potential medical, psychological and social implications of pregnancy, birth and child rearing after breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the positive and negative motivations toward childbirth of breast cancer survivors and their husbands. Method: Thirty breast cancer survivors and 13 husbands were compared to 29 healthy women and 15 husbands. The study included qualitative questions and quantitative measures including: a demographic and medical questionnaire, the Parenthood Motivation Questionnaire - Revised, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Impact of Events Scale, and the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Questionnaire. Results: The experience of having breast cancer did not hinder overall positive motivations toward childbirth, nor did it increase overall negative motivations toward childbirth, among women and their husbands. However, there were several differences between the groups, which may reflect the illness experience. For example, breast cancer survivors and their husbands reported more negative motivations toward childbirth due to health concerns than did healthy women and their husbands.