Mediation of mother-infant interactions by the brain-gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) was examined by observing behavior of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which lack functional CCKA receptors because of a genetic abnormality. OLETF (n = 10) and control (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO] n = 10) dams interacted with 1 pup of each line on Postpartum Days 6-9. OLETF pups received more body and anogenital licking and emitted substantially more ultrasonic vocalizations than LETO pups. OLETF dams carried pups less frequently and showed a nursing position more frequently than LETO dams. No significant Pup x Dam Line interactions or line differences in dams' activity were detected. The results provide convergent validity to previous pharmacological studies implicating CCK mediation of both infant and maternal behavior.