A morphological analysis of ejaculated human abnormal spermatozoa is presented. Eighteen different malformations are characterized, based on (a) the cell's organelle where they appeared, (b) the possible developmental stage when they occurred, and (c) the possible mechanism responsible for a specific appearance. The forces that govern the shaping of the spermatozoan head are described in detail. The possible mechanism responsible for chromatin subcondensation, acrosome malformation, kinked tail forms, and mitochondrial malformations are discussed.
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Acknowledgments: We are grateful to Dr. J. Kedem, of Bar-Ilan University, for his cooperation and helpful discussions. We gratefully acknowledge the excellent technical assistance of J. Muravich and B. Lederhendler. This work is part of the M.Sc. degree requirements of F. Ekes and was supported by the Research Committee of Bar-Ilan University, Research Grant No. 01-453.
- Human spermatozoa
- Spermatozoa ultrastructure