Monitorability for Runtime Verification

Klaud Havelund, Doron Peled

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Runtime verification (RV) facilitates the formal analysis of execution traces. In particular, it permits monitoring the execution of a system and checking it against a temporal specification. Online RV observes, at any moment, a prefix of the complete monitored execution and is required to provide a verdict whether all the complete executions that share that prefix satisfy or falsify the specification. Not every property (and for every kind of verdict) lends itself to obtaining such an early verdict. Monitorability of a temporal property is defined as the ability to provide positive (success) or negative (failure) verdicts after observing a finite prefix of the execution. We classify temporal properties based on their monitorability and present related monitoring algorithms. A common practice in runtime verification is to concentrate on the class of safety properties, where a failure to satisfy the specification can always be detected in finite time. In the second part of the paper we concentrate on monitoring safety properties and their place among the other classes of properties in terms of algorithms and complexity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRuntime Verification - 23rd International Conference, RV 2023, Proceedings
EditorsPanagiotis Katsaros, Laura Nenzi
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9783031442667
StatePublished - 2023
Event23rd International Conference on Runtime Verification, RV 2023 - Thessaloniki, Greece
Duration: 3 Oct 20236 Oct 2023

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume14245 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference23rd International Conference on Runtime Verification, RV 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


The research performed by Klaus Havelund was carried out at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The research performed by Doron Peled was partially funded by Israeli Science Foundation grant 1464/18: “Efficient Runtime Verification for Systems with Lots of Data and its Applications”.

FundersFunder number
Israel Science Foundation1464/18


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