Minidose bupivacaine-fentanyl spinal anesthesia for surgical repair of hip fracture in the aged

Bruce Ben-David, Roman Frankel, Tatianna Arzumonov, Yuri Marchevsky, Gershon Volpin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

142 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Spinal anesthesia for surgical repair of hip fracture in the elderly is associated with a high incidence of hypotension. The synergism between intrathecal opioids and local anesthetics may make it possible to achieve reliable spinal anesthesia with minimal hypotension using a minidose of local anesthetic. Methods: Twenty patients aged ≥ 70 yr undergoing surgical repair of hip fracture were randomized into two groups of 10 patients each. Group A received a spinal anesthetic of bupivacaine 4 mg plus fentanyl 20 μg, and group B received 10 mg bupivacaine. Hypotension was defined as a systolic pressure of < 90 mmHg or a 25% decrease in mean arterial pressure from baseline. Hypotension was treated with intravenous ephedrine boluses 5-10 mg up to a maximum 50 mg, and thereafter by phenylephrine boluses of 100-200 μg. Results: All patients had satisfactory anesthesia. One of 10 patients in group A required ephedrine, a single dose of 5 mg. Nine of 10 patients in group B required vasopressor support of blood pressure. Group B patients required an average of 35 mg ephedrine, and two patients required phenylephrine. The lowest recorded systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures as fractions of the baseline pressures were, respectively, 81%, 84%, and 85% versus 64%, 69%, and 64% for group A versus group B. Conclusions: A 'minidose' of 4 mg bupivacaine in combination with 20 μg fentanyl provides spinal anesthesia for surgical repair of hip fracture in the elderly. The minidose combination caused dramatically less hypotension than 10 mg bupivacaine and nearly eliminated the need for vasopressor support of blood pressure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-10
Number of pages5
JournalAnesthesiology
Volume92
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2000
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Hemodynamics
  • Regional anesthesia
  • Techniques

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