Previously we showed that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients displayed difficulties in generalization and reversal learning in the presence of drug-related context, compared to prolonged abstinence individuals. We now tested how history of childhood trauma, affects their reversal learning abilities. Fifty-one MMT patients were evaluated on a performance- based paradigm which assesses the ability to acquire and reverse stimulus–outcome associations in neutral and drug-related context. Patients with a history of childhood trauma (n = 32) as compared to patients without such a history showed decreased ability to learn associations with positive outcome, and had poorer performance in drug compare to neutral-related context. Most importantly, while individuals with childhood trauma history showed higher success rates in conditions of positive to negative reversals, an opposite pattern was observed in conditions of negative to positive reversal; whereas patients with trauma history preformed significantly worse than patients with no history. The results are in line with other studies which tested the effects of childhood trauma both in clinical and in healthy populations. Recognizing this trait that more disturbed by drug related context, may contribute to develop and improve personalized treatments which takes into account the difficulties as well as the strength associated with childhood trauma.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.
- Methadone maintenance treatment
- Reversal learning
- Substance abuse
- Substance use disorder