Rechargeable metal-sulfur batteries (RMSBs) represent one of the most attractive electrochemical systems in terms of energy density and cost. In most of the proposed systems, the anode side is metallic and the cathode side is elemental sulfur impregnated in a porous matrix. Despite the relatively low voltage of these systems, they attract a lot of attention and are considered to be very promising as next-generation batteries for the following reasons: (1) utilization of active metal anodes enables a leap in specific energy due to the high capacity of metal anodes in comparison to intercalation compounds, (2) sulfur as a cathode exhibits high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mAh/g), and (3) system components make RMSBs low-cost, less toxic batteries. Nevertheless, the high reactivity of metallic anodes (e.g., Li, Na, Mg, and Al) and the solubility of sulfur species in the electrolyte render these batteries unstable and hinder their practical realization. In this Perspective, we focus on rechargeable sulfur batteries with active metal anodes, present important studies conducted in this field, and summarize the reported methods and techniques that are mandatory for effective and practical studies of RMSB.
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