Meta-analysis of explicit memory studies in populations with intellectual disability

Hefziba Lifshitz, Sarit Shtein, Izhak Weiss, Eli Vakil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


This meta-analysis combines the effect size (ES) of 40 explicit memory experiments in populations with intellectual disability (ID). Eight meta-analyses were performed, as well as contrast tests between ES. The explicit memory of participants with ID was inferior to that of participants with typical development (TD). Relatively preserved explicit memory performance was found among participants with Williams syndrome compared with participants with TD and with Down syndrome. The mean ES between the groups with ID vs. TD, when control group selection was based on chronological age, was greater than when comparison was based on mental age. There was no difference in the ES between recall and recognition tests. Verbal memory was more impaired than visual memory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-111
Number of pages19
JournalEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2011


  • Effect size
  • Explicit memory
  • Intellectual disability
  • Meta-analysis
  • Typical development


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