Mass communication and diplomacy: A theoretical framework

Eytan Gilboa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations


This study offers 6 conceptual models that serve in defining and analyzing the role of the media in contemporary diplomacy. Divided into 2 groups, the first 3 models - secret diplomacy, closed-door diplomacy and open diplomacy - deal with limitations officials impose on media coverage and the degree to which negotiations are exposed to the media and public opinion. The models in the second group - public diplomacy, media diplomacy, and media-broker diplomacy - deal with extensive utilization of the media by officials and sometimes by journalists to promote negotiations. The closed-door and the media-broker models are comprehensively presented here for the first time. The other 4 models, although previously defined, have undergone serious revision in this study. This article demonstrates the analytical usefulness of the models through applications to various examples and case studies of significant contemporary diplomatic processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-309
Number of pages35
JournalCommunication Theory
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2000


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