Management and treatment outcome of DRESS patients in Europe: An international multicentre retrospective study of 141 cases

Khalaf Kridin, Marie Charlotte Brüggen, Sarah Walsh, Benoit Bensaid, Annamari Ranki, Eva Oppel, Damian Meyersburg, Ser Ling Chua, Corsin Seeli, Heidi Sandberg, Lars E. French, Artem Vorobyev, Saskia Ingen-Housz-Oro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare but potentially fatal drug hypersensitivity reaction. Objective: To explore treatment approaches across Europe and their impact on the disease course, as well as prognostic factors and culprit drugs. Methods: In this retrospective European multicentric study, we included patients with probable or certain DRESS (RegiSCAR score ≥ 4) between January 2016 and December 2020. Independent associations between clinical parameters and the risk of intensive care unit admission and mortality at three months were assessed using a multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model. Results: A total of 141 patients from 8 tertiary centres were included. Morbilliform exanthem was the most frequent cutaneous manifestation (78.0%). The mean affected body surface area (BSA) was 67%, 42% of the patients presented with erythroderma, and 24.8% had mucosal involvement. Based on systemic involvement, 31.9% of the patients had a severe DRESS. Anticonvulsants (24.1%) and sulphonamides (22.0%) were the most frequent causative agents. In all, 73% of the patients were treated with systemic glucocorticoids, and 25.5% received topical corticosteroids as monotherapy. Few patients received antiviral drugs or anti-IL5. No patients received intravenous immunoglobulins. The overall mortality was 7.1%. Independent predictors of mortality were older age (≥57.0 years; fully adjusted OR, 9.80; 95% CI, 1.20–79.93; p = 0.033), kidney involvement (fully adjusted OR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.00–24.12; p = 0.049), and admission in intensive care unit (fully adjusted OR, 8.12; 95% CI, 1.90–34.67; p = 0.005). Relapse of DRESS and delayed autoimmune sequelae occurred in 8.5% and 12.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: This study underlines the need for diagnostic and prognostic scores/markers as well as for prospective clinical trials of drugs with the potential to reduce mortality and complications of DRESS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)753-762
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
Volume37
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2023

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© 2022 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

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