Magnoliid reproductive organs from the Cenomanian-Turonian of north-western Kazakhstan: Magnoliaceae and Illiciaceae

S. Frumin, E. M. Friis

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Cenomanian-Turonian sediments from the Sarbay locality in north-western Kazakhstan have yielded a rich assemblage of plant fossils including well preserved flowers, fruits, and seeds of angiosperms. This work describes fossil seeds assigned to the Magnoliaceae and the Illiciaceae. Three new species of the extinct magnoliaceous genus Liriodendroidea, L. asiatica, L. costata, and L. tenuitesta, are established and new information on the previously described species, L. alata, is provided. The Liriodendroidea seeds are closely similar to seeds of extant Liriodendron, but are distinguished in being much smaller and winged. A new genus and species, Illiciospermum pusilium, is established based on seeds with close similarity to those of the extant genus Illicium. The seeds are small, anatropous and exotestal with outer epidermis of testa forming a palisade layer. The facets of the palisade cells have deeply undulate anticlinal walls. The micropyle area is seen on the outer integument as a transverse slit placed on a raised strophiole-like structure close to the hilum. The Illiciospermum seeds represent the first unequivocal record of the Illiciaceae in the Cretaceous. Another seed of possible illiciaceous affinity is described as aff. Illiciospermum sp.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)265-288
Number of pages24
JournalPlant Systematics and Evolution
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiosperms
  • Cretaceou s
  • Fossil seeds
  • Illiciaceae
  • Illiciospermum
  • Kazakhstan
  • Liriodendroidea
  • Magnoliaceae


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