Magneto-lithography (ML) is based on patterning magnetic field on a substrate, using paramagnetic or diamagnetic masks, that defines the shape and strength of the magnetic field. ML is a 'bottom-up' method but at the same time, it provides desired high-throughput capabilities for mass production. It is based on applying a magnetic field on the substrate using paramagnetic metal masks that define the spatial distribution and shape of the applied field. The second component in ML is ferromagnetic nanoparticles that are assembled onto the substrate according to the field induced by the mask. We demonstrate the use of various methods of ML for common microelectronic processes such as etching and deposition.
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- dynamic mask