## Abstract

We show new lower bounds and impossibility results for general (possibly non-black-box) zero-knowledge proofs and arguments. Our main results are that, under reasonable complexity assumptions: 1. There does not exist a constant-round zero-knowledge strong proof (or argument) of knowledge (as defined by Goldreich, 2001) for a nontrivial language; 2. There does not exist a two-round zero-knowledge proof system with perfect completeness for an NP-complete language; 3. There does not exist a constant-round public-coin proof system for a nontrivial language that is resettable zero knowledge. This result also extends to bounded resettable zero knowledge. In contrast, we show that under reasonable assumptions, there does exist such a (computationally sound) argument system that is bounded-resettable zero knowledge.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Proceedings - 44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2003 |

Publisher | IEEE Computer Society |

Pages | 384-393 |

Number of pages | 10 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 0769520405 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2003 |

Externally published | Yes |

Event | 44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2003 - Cambridge, United States Duration: 11 Oct 2003 → 14 Oct 2003 |

### Publication series

Name | Proceedings - Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS |
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Volume | 2003-January |

ISSN (Print) | 0272-5428 |

### Conference

Conference | 44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2003 |
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Country/Territory | United States |

City | Cambridge |

Period | 11/10/03 → 14/10/03 |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:© 2003 IEEE.

## Keywords

- Access protocols
- Computer science
- Cryptography