We show new lower bounds and impossibility results for general (possibly non-black-box) zero-knowledge proofs and arguments. Our main results are that, under reasonable complexity assumptions: 1. There does not exist a constant-round zero-knowledge strong proof (or argument) of knowledge (as defined by Goldreich, 2001) for a nontrivial language; 2. There does not exist a two-round zero-knowledge proof system with perfect completeness for an NP-complete language; 3. There does not exist a constant-round public-coin proof system for a nontrivial language that is resettable zero knowledge. This result also extends to bounded resettable zero knowledge. In contrast, we show that under reasonable assumptions, there does exist such a (computationally sound) argument system that is bounded-resettable zero knowledge.
|Title of host publication||Proceedings - 44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2003|
|Publisher||IEEE Computer Society|
|Number of pages||10|
|State||Published - 2003|
|Event||44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2003 - Cambridge, United States|
Duration: 11 Oct 2003 → 14 Oct 2003
|Name||Proceedings - Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS|
|Conference||44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2003|
|Period||11/10/03 → 14/10/03|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2003 IEEE.
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