Localized alterations in cortical thickness and sulcal depth of the cingulo-opercular network in relation to lower reading fluency skills in children with dyslexia

Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Jonathan Dudley, Keri Rosch, Jenny Fotang, Rola Farah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The traditional models of reading development describe how language processing and word decoding contribute to reading comprehension and how impairments in word decoding, a defining feature of dyslexia, affect reading comprehension outcomes. However, these models do not include word and sentence reading (contextual reading) fluency, both of which engage executive functions, with notably decreased performance in children with dyslexia. In the current study, we compared cortical thickness and sulcal depth (CT/SD) in the cingulo-opercular (CO) executive functions brain network in children with dyslexia and typical readers and examined associations with word vs. contextual reading fluency. Overall, CT was lower in insular regions and higher in parietal and caudal anterior cingulate cortex regions in children with dyslexia. Children with dyslexia showed positive correlations between word reading fluency and CT/SD in insular regions, whereas no significant correlations were observed in typical readers. For sentence reading fluency, negative correlations with CT/SD were found in insular regions in children with dyslexia, while positive correlations with SD were found in insular regions in typical readers. These results demonstrate the differential relations between word and sentence reading fluency and anatomical circuitry supporting executive functions in children with dyslexia vs. typical readers. It also suggests that word and sentence reading fluency, relate to morphology of executive function-related regions in children with dyslexia, whereas in typical readers, only sentence reading fluency relates to morphology of executive function regions. The results also highlight the role of the insula within the CO network in reading fluency. Here we suggest that word and sentence reading fluency are distinct components of reading that should each be included in the Simple View of Reading traditional model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number148891
JournalBrain Research
Volume1834
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Cortical thickness
  • Dyslexia
  • Executive functions
  • Insula
  • Reading fluency
  • Sulcal depth

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