## Abstract

The Maximum Carpool Matching problem is a star packing problem in directed graphs. Formally, given a directed graph G = (V,A), a capacity function c : V → N, and a weight function w : A→R^{+}, a carpool matching is a subset of arcs, M ⊆A, such that every v ϵ V satisfies: (i) d^{in}_{M} (v) · dout M (v) = 0, (ii) d^{in}_{M} (v) ≤ c(v), and (iii) d^{out} _{M} (v) ≤ 1. A vertex v for which dout M (v) = 1 is a passenger, and a vertex for which d^{out} _{M}(v) = 0 is a driver who has d^{in}_{M} (v) passengers. In the Maximum Carpool Matching problem the goal is to find a carpool matching M of maximum total weight. The problem arises when designing an online carpool service, such as Zimride [4], which tries to connect between users based on a similarity function. The problem is known to be NP-hard, even in the unweighted and uncapacitated case. The Maximum Group Carpool Matching problem, is an extension of Maximum Carpool Matching where each vertex represents an unsplittable group of passengers. Formally, each vertex u ϵ V has a size s(u) ϵ N, and the constraint d^{in}_{M}(v) ≤ c(v) is replaced with ∑u:(u,v)2M ^{s}(u) ≤c(v). We show that Maximum Carpool Matching can be formulated as an unconstrained submodular maximization problem, thus it admits a 1/2 -Approximation algorithm. We show that the same formulation does not work for Maximum Group Carpool Matching, nevertheless, we present a local search ( 1/2 -ϵ)-Approximation algorithm for Maximum Group Carpool Matching. For the unweighted variant of both problems when the maximum possible capacity, c_{max}, is bounded by a constant, we provide a local search ( 1/2 + 1/2 c_{max} - ϵ)-Approximation algorithm. We also show that the problem is APX-hard, even if the maximum degree and c_{max} are at most 3.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | 25th European Symposium on Algorithms, ESA 2017 |

Editors | Christian Sohler, Christian Sohler, Kirk Pruhs |

Publisher | Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9783959770491 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Sep 2017 |

Event | 25th European Symposium on Algorithms, ESA 2017 - Vienna, Austria Duration: 4 Sep 2017 → 6 Sep 2017 |

### Publication series

Name | Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs |
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Volume | 87 |

ISSN (Print) | 1868-8969 |

### Conference

Conference | 25th European Symposium on Algorithms, ESA 2017 |
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Country/Territory | Austria |

City | Vienna |

Period | 4/09/17 → 6/09/17 |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:∗ Supported in part by the Israel Science Foundation (grant no. 497/14).

## Keywords

- Approximation algorithms
- Local search
- Star packing
- Submodular maximization