Ligero++: A New Optimized Sublinear IOP

Rishabh Bhadauria, Zhiyong Fang, Carmit Hazay, Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam, Tiancheng Xie, Yupeng Zhang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

38 Scopus citations


This paper follows the line of works that design concretely efficient transparent sublinear zero-knowledge Interactive Oracle Proofs (IOP). Arguments obtained via this paradigm have the advantages of not relying on public-key cryptography, not requiring a trusted setup, and resistance to known quantum attacks. In the realm of transparent systems, Ligero and Aurora stand out with incomparable advantages where the former has a fast prover algorithm somewhat succinct proofs and the latter has somewhat fast prover and succinct proofs. In this work, we introduce Ligero++ that combines the best features of both approaches to achieve the best of both worlds. We implement our protocol and benchmark the results.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCCS 2020 - Proceedings of the 2020 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9781450370899
StatePublished - 30 Oct 2020
Event27th ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS 2020 - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: 9 Nov 202013 Nov 2020

Publication series

NameProceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security
ISSN (Print)1543-7221


Conference27th ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 ACM.


  • IOP
  • MPC-in-the-head
  • SNARKs
  • zero-knowledge


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