This paper studies the problem of spectrum-aware routing in a multi-hop, multi-channel cognitive radio network when malicious nodes in the secondary network attempt to block the path with mixed attacks. Based on the location and time-variant path delay information, we model the path discovery process as a non-cooperative stochastic game. By exploiting the structure of the underlying Markov Decision Process, we decompose the stochastic routing game into a series of stage games. For each stage game, we propose a distributed strategy learning mechanism based on stochastic fictitious play to learn the equilibrium strategies of joint relay-channel selection in the condition of both limited information exchange and potential routing-toward-primary attacks. We also introduce a trustworthiness evaluation mechanism based on a multi-arm bandit process for normal users to avoid relaying to the sink-hole attackers. Simulation results show that without the need of information flooding, the proposed algorithm is efficient in bypassing the malicious nodes with mixed attacks.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received March 17, 2017; revised August 10, 2017 and December 27, 2017; accepted January 22, 2018. Date of publication January 30, 2018; date of current version June 14, 2018. The research is partially supported by by MOE Tier 1 under Grant 2017-T1-002-007, MOE Tier 2 under Grant MOE2014-T2-2-015 ARC4/15, NRF2015-NRF-ISF001-2277, US NSF CNS-1717454, CNS-1731424, CNS-1702850, CNS-1646607, ECCS-1547201, CMMI-1434789, CNS-1443917 and ECCS-1405121. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was V. Wong. (Corresponding author: Wenbo Wang.) W. Wang and D. Niyato are with the School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org).
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- Cognitive radio networks
- spectrum-aware routing
- stochastic game
- two timescale learning