Leading the hidden school: a principal’s presence in social media networks

Nitzan Elyakim, Yaffa Buskila, Tamar Chen-Levi, Haia Altarac, Lea Shaked

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study highlights the importance of educational leaders’ responsibilities in virtual spaces, as they are perceived by school faculties and provides a validated tool to measure teachers' perception of a "principal's leadership presence in social media networks". 235 Israeli teachers participated in the study –180 (77%) females and 55 (23%) males, using a questionnaire consisting of 14 items scaled in a 6-point Likert format. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) reveal four modalities of the principal’s on-going leadership presence in social media networks: branding and communicative, transformational, supportive-protective and enforcement presence. The questionnaire may provide principals and educational policy designers with a plan to regulate the socio-professional relationship among a school's stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13323-13347
Number of pages25
JournalEducation and Information Technologies
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Educational leadership
  • Leadership presence
  • Questionnaire composition and validation
  • Social media networks


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