Lagrangian twin support vector regression and genetic algorithm based robust grayscale image watermarking

Ashok Kumar Yadav, Rajesh Mehta, Raj Kumar, Virendra P. Vishwakarma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


A novel imperceptible, secure and robust grayscale image watermarking scheme using Lagrangian twin support vector regression (LTSVR) and genetic algorithm (GA) in discrete Cosine transform (DCT) domain is presented in this manuscript. Fuzzy entropy is used to select the relevant blocks for embedding the watermark. Selected number of blocks based on fuzzy entropy not only reduces the dimensionality of the watermarking problem but also discards redundant and irrelevant blocks. Significant DCT coefficients having high energy compaction property of each selected block are used to form the image dataset to train LTSVR to find the non-linear regression function between the input and target vector. The adaptive watermark strength, different for each selected block, is decided by the GA process based on well defined fitness function. Due to good learning capability of image characteristics and high generalization property of LTSVR, watermark is successfully extracted from the watermarked images against a series of image processing operations. From the experimental and comparison results performed on standard and real world images, it is inferred that the proposed method is suitable for copyright protection applications where high degree of robustness is desirable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9371-9394
Number of pages24
JournalMultimedia Tools and Applications
Issue number15
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


  • DCT
  • Digital Image Watermarking
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Lagrangian Twin SVR


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