Knowledge, belief and time

Sarit Kraus, Daniel Lehmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations


In the conclusion of [7] Halpern and Moses expressed their interest in a logical system in which one could talk about knowledge and belief (and belief about knowledge, knowledge about belief and so on). We investigate such systems. In the first part of the paper knowledge and belief, without time, are considered. Common knowledge and common belief are defined and compared. A logical system and a family of models are proposed, a completeness result is proved and a decision procedure described. In the second part of the paper, time is considered. Different notions of beliefs are distinguished, obeying different properties of persistence. One interpretation of belief which obeys a very strong persistence axiom is put forward and used in the analysis of the "wise men" puzzle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-174
Number of pages20
JournalTheoretical Computer Science
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Jun 1988
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Knowledge, belief and time'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this