Kinetic control of interparticle spacing in Au colloid-based surfaces: Rational nanometer-scale architecture

Katherine C. Grabar, Patrick C. Smith, Michael D. Musick, Jennifer A. Davis, Daniel G. Walter, Michael A. Jackson, Andrea P. Guthrie, Michael J. Natan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

530 Scopus citations


This paper details the kinetic aspects of covalent self-assembly of colloidal Au particles from solution onto immobilized organosilane polymers. On glass substrates, surface formation can be monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Correlation of these data allows the effect of nanostructure on bulk optical properties to be evaluated. At short derivatization times, particle coverage is proportional to (time)1( 1/2 ). The particle sticking probability p, defined as the ratio of bound particles to the number of particles reaching the surface in a given time period, can be determined from a knowledge of the particle radius, solution concentration, temperature, and solution viscosity; for surfaces derivatized with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), p ~ 1. At longer derivatization times, interparticle repulsions result in a 'saturation' coverage at ~30% of a close-packed monolayer. Two approaches for modulating the rate of surface formation are described: electrochemical potential control on organosilane-modified SnO2 electrodes and charge screening by organic adsorbates. Self-assembly of colloidal Au particles onto functionalized substrate surfaces is a reproducible phenomenon, as evidenced by UV-vis and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements on identically prepared substrates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1148-1153
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes


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