Kidney and Liver Predictors of Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19 Infection

Mariana Boulos, Moeen Sbeit, Maamoun Basheer, Guy Ben Arie, Yuval Mirkin, Nimer Assy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


SARS-CoV-2 damages not only the lungs, but also the liver and kidney. Most critically ill COVID-19 patients have liver and kidney dysfunctions. The early identification of patients with COVID-19 who will develop severe or critical disease symptoms is important for delivering proper and early treatment. This research studies the correlation of liver and kidney function indexes and COVID-19 outcomes. Electronic medical record data from 391 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the COVID-19 Department, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel were collected. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables were analyzed. The liver and kidney enzyme indexes were measured upon admission and discharge. A correlation between laboratory levels and severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients was undertaken. This study included 391 COVID-19 patients, 258 mild patients and 133 severe patients. Multivariate stepwise regression analyses and discriminant analyses were used to identify and validate powerful predictors. The main outcome was death or invasive ventilation. Three factors, namely higher urea nitrogen (BUN) and IL-6, and lower albumin levels, were the most powerful predictors of mortality, and classified the results (survival vs. death) correctly in 85% of cases (diagnostic accuracy) with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity 55%. Compared with mild patients, severe patients had lower albumin (ALB), higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and BUN (all p < 0.001). COVID-19 patients, especially severe patients, have damage to liver and kidney function. BUN, IL-6 and albumin are factors predicting mortality while fibrinogen and AST could be independent factors for predicting the severity of COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)452-465
Number of pages14
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • COVID-19
  • kidney function tests
  • liver enzymes
  • liver function tests (LFT)
  • outcome
  • pneumonia
  • risk factors
  • SAR-CoV-2
  • severity and mortality


Dive into the research topics of 'Kidney and Liver Predictors of Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19 Infection'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this