Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA modulates the stability of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RLIM

Hagar Tadmor, Melanie Greenway, Anuj Ahuja, Ola Orgil, Gangling Liao, Richard F. Ambinder, S. Diane Hayward, Meir Shamay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) protein functions in latently infected cells as an essential participant in KSHV genome replication and as a driver of dysregulated cell growth. In a previous study, we have identified LANA-interacting proteins using a protein array screen. Here, we explore the effect of LANA on the stability and activity of RLIM (RING finger LIM-domain-interacting protein, encoded by the RNF12 gene), a novel LANA-interacting protein identified in that protein screen. RLIM is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that leads to the ubiquitination and degradation of several transcription regulators, such as LMO2, LMO4, LHX2, LHX3, LDB1, and the telomeric protein TRF1. Expression of LANA leads to downregulation of RLIM protein levels. This LANA-mediated RLIM degradation is blocked in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor, MG132. Therefore, the interaction between LANA and RLIM could be detected in coimmunoprecipitation assay only in the presence of MG132 to prevent RLIM degradation. A RING finger mutant RLIM is resistant to LANA-mediated degradation, suggesting that LANA promotes RLIM autoubiquitination. Interestingly, we found that LANA enhanced the degradation of some RLIM substrates, such as LDB1 and LMO2, and prevented RLIM-mediated degradation of others, such as LHX3 and TRF1. We also show that transcription regulation by RLIM substrates is modulated by LANA. RLIM substrates are assembled into multiprotein transcription regulator complexes that regulate the expression of many cellular genes. Therefore, our study identified another way KSHV can modulate cellular gene expression. IMPORTANCE E3 ubiquitin ligases mark their substrates for degradation and therefore control the cellular abundance of their substrates. RLIM is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that leads to the ubiquitination and degradation of several transcription regulators, such as LMO2, LMO4, LHX2, LHX3, LDB1, and the telomeric protein TRF1. Here, we show that the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)encoded LANA protein enhances the ubiquitin ligase activity of RLIM, leading to enhanced RLIM autoubiquitination and degradation. Interestingly, LANA enhanced the degradation of some RLIM substrates, such as LDB1 and LMO2, and prevented RLIM-mediated degradation of others, such as LHX3 and TRF1. In agreement with protein stability of RLIM substrates, we found that LANA modulates transcription by LHX3-LDB1 complex and suggest additional ways LANA can modulate cellular gene expression. Our study adds another way a viral protein can regulate cellular protein stability, by enhancing the autoubiquitination and degradation of an E3 ubiquitin ligase.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere01578-19
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume94
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords

  • E3 ubiquitin ligase
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
  • LANA
  • LDB1
  • ORF73
  • RLIM

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