Isotopic evidence for early trade in animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan

Elizabeth R. Arnold, Gideon Hartman, Haskel J. Greenfield, Itzhaq Shai, Lindsay E. Babcock, Aren M. Maeir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0157650
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Arnold et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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