Ocular drug delivery offers unique challenges and opportunities in the era of novel therapeutic agents ranging from small molecules to gene therapies. Noninvasive delivery of drugs into the back of the eye or any part of the eye is extremely limited by short precorneal residence time and formidable biological barriers. The eye is a sensitive, sensory organ that requires a high level of material and procedural safety, while achieving therapeutic efficacy. Some recent advances and unmet needs for ocular drug delivery and disposition are discussed in this article. Specifically, nanomedicines, physical and chemical means to enhance delivery, stimuli-responsive delivery systems, the role of vitreal binding on ocular pharmacokinetics, and the influence of aging eye on drug delivery, and the associated unmet needs are highlighted. Additionally, the unmet needs in the medication management for the elderly patients with eye diseases are discussed.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© Copyright 2019, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 2019.
- drug delivery
- pigment binding
- stimuli-responsive drug delivery
- vitreous binding