Interpretation of energy adjustment models for nutritional epidemiology

Victor Kipnis, Laurence S. Freedman, Charles C. Brown, Anne Hartman, Arthur Schatzkin, Sholom Wacholder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

99 Scopus citations


The authors discuss the interpretation of three alternative energy adjustment models for nutritional epidemiology. It is shown that four different effects are addressed by these models: 1) adding nutrient N, 2) substituting nutrient N for "other" nutrients, 3) adding "other" nutrients, and 4) adding both N and "other" nutrients in a specific ratio. Each of these effects may be estimated from any of the three models. The relative standard errors for the four estimated effects are also provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1376-1380
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 15 Jun 1993
Externally publishedYes


  • Epidemiologic methods
  • Models, statistical
  • Nutrition


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