This study tested the hypothesis that people perceive their ingroup as experiencing more uniquely human secondary emotions than the outgroup. Jacoby's process-dissociation procedure was used to measure participants' controlled recognition memory for materials that associated the ingroup or outgroup with secondary or primary emotions. Conscious memory was better for associations between the outgroup and secondary emotions than for associations between the ingroup and secondary emotions. No such difference was found for primary emotions. These results suggest that people attribute more humanity to the ingroup than to the outgroup.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Grant ARC 96/01.198 of the Communauté française de Belgique. We thank Magdalena Mozdzierz for her assistance in collecting data. We are grateful to Olivier Corneille for his invaluable comments and thoughtful advice on various stages of this project.