Ag-TiO2, Cu-TiO2 and Ni-TiO2 were prepared by sonication. The interactions of Ti-gel with silver, copper and nickel ions under ultrasound irradiation are very different, although these ions can be dispersed very well in titania. The results of EDXA and XRD analysis indicate that Ti-gel does not react with AgCl and crystallizes unaffectedly to form rutile. M(OH)2 (M = Cu and Ni), on the other hand, favors polycondensation with Ti-gel and affects the crystallization of Ti-gel. CuO favors stabilization of the anatase phase, Ni2+ ions tend to incorporate more easily into titania than Cu2+ ions do when the samples are calcined. TEM, and BET were also used to characterize the samples.
- Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction
- X-ray diffraction