Initial risk factors, self-compassion trajectories, and well-being outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic: A person-centered approach

Hali Kil, Eric Lacourse, Geneviève A. Mageau, Mathieu Pelletier-Dumas, Anna Dorfman, Dietlind Stolle, Jean Marc Lina, Roxane de la Sablonnière

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: We investigated whether initial risk classes and heterogeneous trajectories of self-compassion over the course of the pandemic may impact well-being outcomes 1 year into the pandemic. Methods: A large, representative sample of Canadians (N = 3,613; 50.6% women) was sampled longitudinally over 11 waves (April 2020–April 2021), using a rolling cross-sectional survey design. Analyses were conducted in three steps: (1) latent class analysis to identify heterogeneity in risk factors (sociodemographic, cognitive-personality, health-related) early in the pandemic, (2) latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify longitudinal self-compassion trajectories, and (3) GLM to examine effects of risk factor classes and self-compassion trajectories, as well as their interaction, on later well-being (mental health, perceived control, life satisfaction). Results and Discussion: Four risk factor classes emerged, with 50.9% of participants experiencing low risk, 14.3% experiencing multiple risks, 20.8% experiencing Cognitive-Personality and Health risks, and 14.0% experiencing sociodemographic and Cognitive-Personality risks. Four self-compassion trajectories also emerged, with 47.7% of participants experiencing moderate-high self-compassion that decreased then stabilized, 32.0% experiencing moderate self-compassion that decreased then stabilized, 17.3% experiencing high and stable self-compassion across time, and 3.0% experiencing low and decreasing self-compassion. Comparisons of well-being outcomes 1 year post-pandemic indicated that higher levels of self-compassion over time may protect against the impact of initial risk on well-being outcomes. Further work is still needed on heterogeneity in experiences of risk and protective factors during stressful life events.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1016397
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
StatePublished - 8 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2023 Kil, Lacourse, Mageau, Pelletier-Dumas, Dorfman, Stolle, Lina and de la Sablonnière.


  • latent class analysis
  • latent class growth analysis
  • pandemic
  • risk factors
  • self-compassion
  • well-being


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