Background: Weight loss surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial cardiovascular effects are poorly understood, although inhibition of inflammatory markers has been demonstrated. We hypothesized that anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress reactions are responsible for the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery that have been shown in clinical trials. Methods: The inflammatory system was studied by measuring mRNA levels of E-selectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and in a cell line (HUVEC-CS) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells that were incubated for 4 h with pools of serum, collected before and 3 months after surgery, from 20 women who underwent bariatric surgery for weight loss. The oxidative stress pathway was examined by mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase (P22phox), paraoxonase (PON2), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase following incubation of the cells for 4 h with serum pools. The nitric oxide (NO) pathway was studied by measuring mRNA levels of inducible NOS and endothelial NOS and by determining nitrite and nitrate levels. To study the functional behaviour of endothelial cells under stress, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (PECs) were incubated with the serum pools for 48 h, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the last 4 h. Results: The inflammatory system: incubation of HUVEC-CS cells with serum from women who underwent bariatric surgery led to a significant decrease in mRNA expression of E-selectin and IL-6 postsurgery. Stimulation of PECs with LPS in the presence of serum from women who underwent bariatric surgery caused a more significant difference in E-selectin and TNF-α mRNA expression before and after surgery. The antioxidant system: incubation of HUVEC-CS cells with serum from women who underwent bariatric surgery did not lead to any difference in mRNA expression of P22phox, PON2, SOD2, GPx or catalase. Stimulation of PECs with LPS showed that obese women had higher levels of P22phox, PON2 and the antioxidant enzymes SOD2, GPx and catalase before and after surgery, compared to the control group. The NO pathway: HUVEC-CS cells incubated with serum from women who underwent bariatric surgery secreted higher nitrite/nitrate levels compared to presurgery serum (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Inhibition of inflammation and enhanced availability of NO 3 months after bariatric surgery could partly explain the beneficial effects of surgery for weight loss.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
- Bariatric surgery
- Nitric oxide (NO)