Infinite invariant density in a semi-Markov process with continuous state variables

Takuma Akimoto, Eli Barkai, Günter Radons

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Abstract

We report on a fundamental role of a non-normalized formal steady state, i.e., an infinite invariant density, in a semi-Markov process where the state is determined by the interevent time of successive renewals. The state describes certain observables found in models of anomalous diffusion, e.g., the velocity in the generalized Lévy walk model and the energy of a particle in the trap model. In our model, the interevent-time distribution follows a fat-tailed distribution, which makes the state value more likely to be zero because long interevent times imply small state values. We find two scaling laws describing the density for the state value, which accumulates in the vicinity of zero in the long-time limit. These laws provide universal behaviors in the accumulation process and give the exact expression of the infinite invariant density. Moreover, we provide two distributional limit theorems for time-averaged observables in these nonstationary processes. We show that the infinite invariant density plays an important role in determining the distribution of time averages.

Original languageEnglish
Article number052112
JournalPhysical Review E
Volume101
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2020

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© 2020 American Physical Society.

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