Increased Green Electricity Generated in Carbon-Doped TiO2-Based Hydroelectric Cell

Kajal, Sunidhi Badola, Abha Shukla, Jyoti Shah, Deepika, Rajesh Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The most efficient way to mitigate the degradation of the environment and global warming is to generate clean, sustainable green energy. A hydroelectric cell (HEC) is a green energy device that employs oxygen-deficient, mesoporous metal oxides to produce electricity through water splitting at room temperature. In this work, carbon doping is explored to create oxygen vacancies in TiO2. The solid-state reaction method was used to process titanium dioxide (TiO2) with 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% of carbon (C). Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of microstructural defects and optical defects in the carbon-doped TiO2. The enhancement in microstrain and dislocation density due to the incorporation of carbon atoms in the TiO2 lattice was confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The HEC was fabricated by applying silver paste in a comb-like pattern to one face of the sample pellet and attaching a zinc sheet to the other face. The surface of the C-TiO2 pellet was moistened with water to generate voltage and current. The fabricated 2 × 2 cm2 TiO2 and 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% C-doped TiO2 HECs generated short-circuit current of 5.0 mA, 6.3 mA, and 7 mA with open-circuit voltage of 0.76 V, 0.81 V, and 0.74 V, respectively. The cells delivered off-load output power of 3.8 mW, 5.10 mW, and 5.2 mW, respectively. Nyquist curves obtained for the HECs in the wet state confirmed the ionic conduction process within the material and charge transfer to the electrodes. Carbon-doped TiO2 processed at low temperature generated enhanced power output in comparison to pure TiO2. Therefore, C-doped TiO2 is a cost-effective material for producing green electricity at a large scale.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
StateAccepted/In press - 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2024.


  • green electricity
  • Hydroelectric cell
  • Raman
  • SEM
  • titanium dioxide
  • V–I measurements
  • XRD


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