Inconsistency Handling in Multiperspective Specifications

Anthony C.W. Finkelstein, Dov Gabbay, Anthony Hunter, Jeff Kramer, Bashar Nuseibeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

346 Scopus citations


The development of most large and complex systems necessarily involves many people-each with their own perspectives on the system defined by their knowledge, responsibilities, and commitments. To address this we have advocated distributed development of specifications from multiple perspectives. However, this leads to problems of identifying and handling inconsistencies between such perspectives. Maintaining absolute consistency is not always possible. Often this is not even desirable since this can unnecessarily constrain the development process, and can lead to the loss of important information. Indeed since the real-world forces us to work with inconsistencies, we should formalize some of the usually informal or extra-logical ways of responding to them. This is not necessarily done by eradicating inconsistencies but rather by supplying logical rules specifying how we should act on them. To achieve this, we combine two lines of existing research: The ViewPoints framework for perspective development, interaction and organization, and a logic-based approach to inconsistency handling. This paper presents our technique for inconsistency handling in the ViewPoints framework by using simple examples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-578
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Inconsistency handling multiple perspectives views
  • viewpoints specification process modeling classical first-order predicate logic temporal logic


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