Regenerative medicine has developed promising approaches for healing and replacing defective and damaged organs or tissues with functional ones. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting innovation has integrated a potential to design organs or tissues specific to the patient with the capability of rapid construction to fulfill the storage of organs and the need for transplantation. 3D bioprinting of organs has the main goal to develop a structural and functional organ or tissue mimic to the original one. The highly complex fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds containing biomaterials, tissue models, and biomedical devices has made it possible to print small blood vessels to mimic organs to reduce organ or tissue rejection. 3D bioprinting has the concept of bioinks containing biomaterials that may trigger the immune responses in the body. Nevertheless, foreign body response (FBR) is mediated by various cell types such as B-cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, neutrophils, and T-cells, and molecular signals such as antibodies (Abs), cytokines, and reactive radical species. Typically, the biomaterial is shielded by the fibrous encapsulation that is regulated by molecular signals. This review explored the progress in 3D bioprinting of vital organs and basic immune response against the biomaterials used in this approach. Thus, evaluating immune response against biomaterials used in 3D printed organs is necessary to mitigate tissue rejection after the transplantation.
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© 2021 Elsevier B.V.
- 3D printed organs
- Immune response