Immigrant examination behavior

Gil S. Epstein, Shahar Sansani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we estimate differences in examination behavior between immigrants and natives, by examining differences in the propensity to forego a passing grade on a final exam in order to retake that final exam. Retaking a final exam involves some level of uncertainty, so differences in examination behavior may be due to differences in motivation, risk-taking, and discipline. We find that immigrants are about 2 percentage points more likely to retake a passed exam than natives. This represents a large difference given a baseline retake rate of about 6.5 percentage points.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-155
Number of pages20
JournalEducation Economics
Issue number2
Early online date12 Nov 2019
StatePublished - 3 Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Immigrant-native differences
  • examination behavior
  • motivation
  • uncertainty


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