Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is associated with a high risk for complications and death, which requires identifying severe patients and treating them accordingly. We examined the serum level of six cytokines and chemokines (IL-16, IL-21, IL-23, IL-33, BCA-1, TRAIL) and investigated the association between them and patients’ disease severity. Concentrations of six cytokines and chemokines were measured using the MILLIPLEX®MAP kit (Billerica, MA, USA) in serum samples attained from CDI patients within 24–48 h after laboratory confirmation of C. difficile presence. Demographic and clinical data were collected from medical records. The disease severity score was determined according to guidelines of the “Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and the Infectious Diseases Society of America” (SHEA-IDSA). Out of 54 patients, 20 (37%) had mild to moderate disease and 34 (63%) had severe disease. IL-16 (p = 0.005) and BCA-1 (p = 0.012) were associated with a more severe disease. In conclusion, IL-16 and BCA-1, along with other cytokines and chemokines, may serve as biomarkers for the early prediction of CDI severity in the future. An improved and more accessible assessment of CDI severity will contribute to the adjustment of the medical treatment, which will lead to a better patient outcome.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: The study was supported by the Chief Scientist’s Office of the Ministry of Health, Israel, grant no. 3-000-14515.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Clostridioides difficile
- Disease severity
- Nosocomial infection